The 40th International Mathematical Olympiad Shortlist Problems
1999年第40届国际数学奥林匹克备选题 
Algebra
 was used in the Olympiad.
 The numbers 1 to n^{2} are arranged in the squares of an n x n board (1 per square). There are n^{2} (n1) pairs of numbers in the same row or column. For each such pair take the larger number divided by the smaller. Then take the smallest such ratio and call it the minrat of the arrangement. So, for example, if n^{2} and n^{2}  1 were in the same row, then the minrat would be n^{2}/(n^{2}  1). What is the largest possible minrat?
 Each of n > 1 girls has a doll with her name on it. Each pair of girls swaps dolls in some order. For which values of n is it possible for each girl to end up (1) with her own doll, (2) with another girl's doll? [For example, if n = 4, denote girls by A, B, C, D and dolls by a, b, c, d. So the initial position is Aa Bb Cc Dd. If the swaps are in the order AB, CD, AC, BD, AD, BC, then the successive positions are Ab Ba Cc Dd, Ab Ba Cd Dc, Ad Ba Cb Dc, Ad Bc Cb Da, Aa Bc Cb Dd and Aa Bb Cc Dd. So for n = 4, (1) is possible.]
 Show that we cannot partition the positive integers into three nonempty parts, so that if a and b belong to different parts, then a^{2}  ab + b^{2} belongs to the third part.
 was used in the Olympiad.
 Given real numbers x_{1} ≤ x_{2} ≤ ... ≤ x_{n} (with n > 2), carry out the following procedure:
(1) arrange the numbers in a circle;
(2) delete one of the numbers;
(3) if just two numbers are left, then take their sum. Otherwise replace each number by the sum of it and the number on its right. Go to step 2.
Show that the largest sum that can be achieved by this procedure is (n2)C0 x_{2} + (n2)C0 x_{3} + (n2) C1 x_{4} + (n2)C1 x_{5} + (n2)C2 x_{6} + ... + (n2)C( [n/2]1 ) x_{n}, where mCk represents the binomial coefficient.
Combinatorics
 A low path from the lattice point (0, 0) to the lattice point (n, n) is a sequence of 2n moves, each one point up or one point to the right, starting at (0, 0) and ending at (n, n) such that all points of the path satisfy y <= x. A step is two consecutive moves, the first right and the second up. Show that the number of low paths from (0, 0) to (n, n) with just k steps is 1/k (n1)C(k1) nC(k1), where mCk is the binomial coefficient.
 A tile is made of 5 unit squares as shown. Show that if a 5 x n rectangle can be covered with n tiles, then n is even. [Tiles can be turned over and rotated.] Show that a 5 x 2n rectangle can be tiled in at least 3^{n1}2 ways.
 A chameleon repeatedly rests and then catches a fly. The first rest is for a period of 1 minute. The rest before catching the fly 2n is the same as the rest before catching fly n. The rest before catching fly 2n+1 is 1 minute more than the rest before catching fly 2n. How many flies does the chameleon catch before his first rest of 9 minutes? How many minutes (in total) does the chameleon rest before catching fly 98? How many flies has the chameleon caught after 1999 total minutes of rest?
 Let A be any set of n residues mod n^{2}. Show that there is a set B of n residues mod n^{2} such that at least half of the residues mod n^{2} can be written as a + b with a in A and b in B.
 was used in the Olympiad.
 Every integer is colored red, blue, green or yellow. m and n are distinct odd integers such that m + n is not zero. Show that we can find two integers a and b with the same color such that a  b = m, n m + n or m  n.
 Let p > 3 be a prime. Let h be the number of sequences a_{1}, a_{2}, ... , a_{p1} such that a_{1} + 2a_{2} + 3a_{3} + ... + (p1)a_{p1} is divisible by p and each a_{i} is 0, 1 or 2. Let k be defined similarly except that each a_{i} is 0, 1 or 3. Show that h ≤ k with equality iff p = 5.
Geometry
 P is a point inside the triangle ABC. k = min(PA, PB, PC). Show that k + PA + PB
+ PC ≤ AB + BC + CA.
 Given any 5 points, no three collinear and no four concyclic, show that just 4 of the 10 circles through 3 points contain just one of the other two points.
 was used in the Olympiad.
 ABC is a triangle. The point X on the side AB is such that AX/XB = 4/5. The point Y on the segment CX is such that CY = 2 XY, and the point Z on the ray CA is such that ∠CXZ + ∠B = 180^{o}. Also ∠XYZ = 45^{o}. Show that the angles of ABC are determined and find the smallest angle.
 ABC is a triangle with inradius r. The circle through A and C orthogonal to the incircle meets the circle through A and B orthogonal to the incircle at A and A'. The points B' and C' are defined similarly. Show that the circumradius of A'B'C' is r/2.
 was used in the Olympiad.
 P is a point inside the convex quadrilateral ABCD such that PA = PC, ∠APB = ∠PAD + ∠PCD, and ∠CPD = ∠PCB + ∠PAB. Show that AB·PC = BC·PD and CD·PA = DA·PB.
 X is a variable point on the arc AB of the circumcircle of ABC which does not contain C. I' is the incenter of AXC and I" is the incenter of BXC. Show that the circumcircle of XI'I" passes through a fixed point of the circumcircle of ABC.

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